Estimation of Radionuclides in Sand and Soil Samples in the United States, 2015


eagerlabassistants.com


April 28, 2016

Summary: The findings of this report are the results of gamma spectroscopy tests to detect presence and estimate activity of both natural radiation and potential radioactive contaminants in soil and sand samples collected in 2015 across the United States. Uranium-238 activity was estimated 25.3 – 162.4 Bq/kg. Thorium-232 estimates of activity, if present, were approximately 15 - 90 Bq/kg, Potassium-40 ranged from 40 - 620 Bq/kg, Cesium-137 activity levels ranged from 1.6 – 13.0 Bq/kg and Cesium-134 levels ranged from approximately 1.0 – 6.6 Bq/kg with detections at other energy levels included.


Objectives: The objectives of this study are several-fold: to act as successor to the study Estimation of Cesium in Sand and Soil Samples in the United States, 2012-2013 and 2014 in establishing baseline data on levels of cesium in soil; to broaden the geographical scope of the investigation through sampling location in addition to increasing the number of measurements made for a more in-depth analysis of each sample; serving as a reference in documenting changes to environmental radioactivity due to anthropogenic activities; and to serve as a data set for use in current and future analyses.


Sample Locations, Sites and Collection: Samples are plotted by the nearest city or area. Sites depended entirely on several citizen scientists' locations, travels and willingness to collect and donate samples for this study. In that respect, they can be considered randomly collected; however, sample site within a given location cannot be considered random. In addition to careful consideration to avoid contamination, sample collectors were instructed to gather any pertinent notes, choose to collect from the most undisturbed ground they could find in the sampling location, request permission should it be applicable and, if possible, collect from the top 1” of soil to maintain consistency in samples with the previous study as well as meet the conditions to have the best opportunity to collect any potentially recent deposition. In all cases the formers were achieved to the best of our knowledge and any deviation from the latter is noted in the sample notes towards the end of this study. Many thanks is deserving to the several citizen scientists for collecting, sharing and permitting these samples - also performed by citizen scientists.


Soil and sand samples not included in previous studies were obtained between March and December of 2015. Each sample upon collection or receipt was assigned a sample number, placed in a standardized cylindrical jar, labeled, weighed, tested with an Inspector Geiger counter and sealed. The samples were then stored for at least 3 months prior to testing with a GS2812 NaI(Tl) scintillator and a GS1100A multichannel analyzer using PRA8.0 software to determine the presence of radiation through gamma spectroscopy. The scintillator was calibrated with a cesium-137 NIST standardized check source and a cobalt-60 check source before eight (8) hour tests with accompanying and interspersed regular background tests were conducted. Samples were tested 10cm from the center of the crystal in no particular geographical order during the months of February and April 2016 in Sinking Spring, Pennsylvania. Further, this location received no detected radiological anomalies during the times of testing as evidenced by the continual air monitoring represented in the image below. As can be seen, average background at this location is 36 counts per minute (cpm) on an Inspector Geiger counter and remained steady throughout the testing period shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Historical graph for the period February - April 2016 at testing location in Sinking Spring, PA depicting the average air background of 35cpm.

Spectra were analyzed at predetermined areas of interest described below including the quantification of both uranium and thorium series, calculation of U235 enrichment, potassium levels and identification of potential contaminants including quantification of any cesium activity. A visual inspection was then performed along with any investigation and subsequent measurement doing so may have necessitated; therefore, within the sample notes, other detections not shown on the maps may be implied and weren't otherwise measured in all samples. Equipment restraints, check sources available to accurately determine detector efficiency at additional levels than currently calibrated with, uncertainties, and the level of expertise of the analyst are just a few of the limiting factors in reporting methods; therefore, results are tabulated and expressed up to a noted level of comfort for each area of interest.

Uranium Series: Natural uranium contains 99.2745% U238 and 0.72% U235 and is present in common rocks and soils around .5-5 ppm by weight; hence, its presence is expected in all of these samples. Average activity level is around 40 Bq/kg in soil (UNSCEAR 2000). This may vary widely due to soil and rock type. It is through the detection of its daughters, in which ideally it should be in secular equilibrium with if in its natural state, in addition to the presence of any Pa234m from which a clue into its nature may sometimes be extrapolated; therefore, the following gamma-rays were measured and calculated to estimate the values presented.


U238 - 63.3 keV
Ra226 – 186.0 keV – also used to calculate U235
Pb214 – 295.2 keV, 351.9 keV
Bi214 – 609.3 keV, 1765.5 keV
Pb210 – 46.5 keV
Pa234m – 1001.0 keV, 766 keV


Upper limits and detections in Bq/kg for U238 activity at 63 keV. Samples marked with a detection at 1001.0 keV (Pa234m) and/or 766 KeV (Pa234m) in addition to exhibiting little or no activity at 609 and 1765 keV indicate a possible partial contribution of processed uranium. All showed disruption in the U235 ratio.


Actinium (sample notes): As mentioned above, uranium in its natural state consists of 0.72% U235. Anything below this amount is technically considered depleted; however, as can be seen in results of tests, this region is subject to much interference. For all samples, at least some portion of contribution is expected to be from natural ore so in addition to checking for presence of Pa234m and lack of Bi214 for an indicator of a processed uranium contribution, the ratio of U235/U238 is also considered.


Areas of interest for the actinium series included the measurement of the following:


U235 – 143.8 keV, 163.4 keV; and, 186.0 keV (by separation of Ra226)
Rn219 – 401.8 keV


While the measurement and any resulting value or detection at 143.8 and 163.4 keV proved fruitful for confirmation purposes, ultimately it was the correction of the 186.0 keV line between the contribution from Ra226 and U235 that proved most legitimate in estimating a more logically fitting value to calculate the enrichment percentage for U235, and indeed, the more in equilibrium Ra226 was with U238 the more this was so as literature and studies say. From the specific activity of U238 and U235 as cited by Nucleide - Lara, where all nuclear data was obtained for this study (with the exception of Pa234m, instead using the Gilmore 2003 empirical intensity of 1.021%), the counts in the 185 keV peak can be mathematically apportioned between Ra226 and U235 by the following formula (*There is also another small correction for Th230 that can be made to the 186.0 keV peak; however, note that was not considered in this study.):


Corrected Ra226 = 0.5709 x apparent Ra226 at 186.0 keV
Estimated U235 = 0.02662 x apparent Ra226 at 186.0 keV (Gilmore 2011)


This U235 result was then used in combination with the U238 value from the 63 keV peak to determine the U234 content using the following formula as described in and derived from Calculation of Uranium Isotopic Activity Composition Based on Data from Various Assay Methods:


x / 0.29 = 27.18 + 0.3004 (U238/U235) + 0.00143 (U238/U235^2)


After obtaining the estimated calculation for U234, RadProCalculator was used to complete the remainder of the calculation for the quoted U235 percent enrichment. Keep in mind, while uncertainty is not calculated for the enrichment values, the lower the concentration of uranium, the worse the uncertainty. While exact values cannot be obtained, general conclusions can be reached that can be valuable in detecting biases.


Thorium Series: According to the UNSCEAR 2000 report, the average activity of Th232 in soil is 40 Bq/kg. The thorium decay chain is complicated and has slow in-growth of daughters if separated which makes estimating difficult.


The following areas of interest were measured to determine Th232 activity and potential contaminants:


Ac228 – 911 keV
Ac228 – 969 keV
Bi212 – 609.3, 1765.5 keV
Pb212 – 238.6 keV
Tl208 – 277, 583, 860 keV
U233 (Bi213) – 440 keV
U233 (Tl209) - 1567 keV


Results for thorium-232 are expressed as approximations in Bq/kg denoted by the approximation (~) if a detection were significant at 911 keV or 969 keV, or by “not detected” including the value of the upper limit, if the activity at 911 or 969 was not statistically significant. Similar amounts after the break in the chain caused by any potential separation were checked against. Sample sites are further marked on the map to indicate potential presence of U232, a contaminant created during the production of U233 by neutron bombardment of Th232. U232 falls along the same decay chain as Th232 with the exception that it skips Ac228 before entering; therefore, an abundance of activity for Bi212 and lack of presence of Ac228 is an indicator of such. Points marked on the map as containing U232 then are those samples that had detections at 1765 keV and negative values at both 911 and 969 keV. Samples that resulted in significant detections at 440 keV (Bi213) and 1567 keV (Tl209) were marked for U233. All loose estimations should be received as such; however, the general information can be gleaned that most sites fall within expected ranges of normal Th232 content.


Potassium-40

According to the 1982 UNSCEAR report, the normal range for potassium K-40 in soils is 100-700 Bq/kg. While a check source for potassium-40 was not used in this study, numerous measurements have been made with samples of known average quantities of potassium-40 to within 20% uncertainty based on the calibration curve; therefore, the 1461 keV peak was measured and reported in upper limits and detections in Bq/kg under that assumption.


Am241 (Americium-241) – 59.5 keV


Np237 (Neptunium-237) - 86.5 keV


Pa233 (Protactinium-233) – 312 keV - After 6 months, build up of Pa233 should be in equilibrium with Np237 so the presence of a detection at 312 keV acts as a verifying factor. Samples marked as containing Am241 then are ones with one or more detections at 59, 86 or 312 keV.


Cs137 (Cesium-137) – 662 keV – results were derived with the use of a calibrated NIST standard check source and expressed in Bq/kg with 95% confidence. While not shown on the map, an uncertainty budget is maintained by this lab, is currently at least 6.1% and is expressed in the results.


Cs134 (Cesium-134) – 563, 569, 605, 796, 802 and 1354 keV – all energy levels were measured however due to half-life, intensity and time elapsed since the last known release of Cs134, values reported are an average of statistically significant detections, when obtained, at 605 and 795 keV in Bq/kg. It should be kept in mind that Cs134 has a complex decay scheme, is subject to true coincidence summing as discussed below with cobalt, and was not compared to a check source but rather relied on a calibration curve in this study. It is interesting to note the resulting ratios between Cs137 and Cs134 however in both quantity and number of detections.



The 2012-2013 soil study consisted of 48 samples, 22 Cs137 detections, 6 of which (or 12.5%) had Cs137 activity ranging from 4.9 – 19.1 Bq/kg with Cs134 activity ranging from 3.4 – 5.8 Bq/kg. The Cs134/137 ratio ranged from 0.27-0.84 with an average of 0.49 and a median of 0.52.


The 2014 study consists of 60 samples, 30 Cs137 detections, 10 of which (or 16.7%) had Cs137 activity ranging from 5.7 – 10.2 Bq/kg with Cs134 activity ranging from 1.2 – 3.4 Bq/kg. The Cs134/137 ratio ranged from 0.21-0.46 with an average of 0.34 and a median of 0.3.


This latest 2015 study consists of 122 samples, 104 Cs137 detections and 91 Cs134 detections. The Cs134/137 ratio ranged from 0.22-1.1.


Too many avenues of uncertainty exist which may affect those results to state with any confidence what caused the increase in number of detections of Cs134; however, a few possibilities include: more precise discrimination in peak measurement and analysis, more prominence in the spectra due to shorter-lived radionuclides having time to decay, recent production and deposition of Cs134 or maybe random coincidence. While it wouldn't account for the increase in Cs134 detections for 2014 samples, a change was made in testing 2015 spectra by decreasing the bin size for pulse height to a more conducive level for Sodium-Iodide crystals.


It is worthy to note, the Cs134/Cs137 ratio is within the range consistent with the 2.3 year half-life of Cs134 for the most part until this latest 2015 study. That in conjunction with detections for short-lived radionuclides suggests something happened more recently.


Co60 (Cobalt-60) – 1173, 1332 keV – Cobalt-60 measurements signify that detections were made at both 1173 keV and 1332 keV with peak widths indicating the source is from a gamma-ray.  Some samples are marked as possible detections of Co-60 as some measurements results in sum peaks, potentially from something or some process other than what is labeled as Cobalt-60. It is differentiated as, while not NIST standard, a check source of Co-60 was used to calibrate the detector for these tests, in addition to having known measurement data with which to compare shape and widths, is known to be subject to true coincidence summing (TCS) in addition to random summing – defined as two gamma-rays and/or x-rays emitting at the same time. Several factors can exacerbate the problem including proximity of the detector to sample, and in the case of cobalt-60, whether yttrium-88 is possibly present. The use of a large detector may as well, and while steps were taken to avoid as many avenues as possible, TCS is not dependent upon count rate. (Gilmore 2011). It is for those reasons then, in addition to samples being comprised of the environmental nature lending towards a higher possibility of Y88 which prompted the delineation; thus, for every sum peak detected at 1173keV, activity at 662 keV or any presence of Am241 or Cs137 were reviewed; and at 1332, those spectra were checked for the potential presence of Y88. 


Ru106 (Ruthenium106/Rhodium106)– 622 keV – Ru106 has a short half-life and is a beta emitter; however, its measurement through the detection of the gamma-ray emitting daughter Rh106 is possible and was still made for experimental purposes. While approximately 5 half-lives have past since the triple meltdowns at Fukushima Diachii Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the last known source of release, the time passed prior to testing can be an advantage in that shorter lived radionuclides released have had a chance to decay, that if tested earlier may have contributed too much towards background to result in any statistically significant detections. On the other hand, releases are ongoing with the expectation that highly mobile Ru106 is still being produced at the site; therefore, it was also measured as a potential marker for recent criticalities. Intensity of the gamma-ray is low with only one gamma-ray to measure so uncertainty on any presence cannot be understated.


Mn54 (Manganese-54) – 835 keV – Manganese-54 has a short half-life as does Ru106 and was measured for the same reasons; however, it has a high intensity at 835 keV with little to interfere at that level. While detections indicated are certain, due to only one gamma-ray to measure and lack of calibrating check source, uncertainty in any resulting activity being attributable to Mn54 should be considered with caution as well when interpreting results.


I129 – 29 keV – Large sodium crystal detectors as used in this study are not the best to be using in this energy range for the purposes of quantifying activity due to the large number of x-rays in this region; however, detection may be possible so it was measured. Uncertainty lies not in detection at this level but in source, similarly to the Mn54 and Ru106 designations; however, statistically significant detections at this level, independent of any potential interference from cesium-137 at 32 keV, are noted before designating any detection on or about 29 keV as an I129 on the map.


Be7 - 478 keV - This was a new measurement made for 2015 samples as a result of interest from other analysts. Be7 may have cosmic origin and/or it can be a indicator of recent fission of a terrestrial origin with its 53 day half-life. Be-7 is a cosmogenic radionuclide produced by the process of spallation of oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules in the troposphere and stratosphere. According to Appoloni and Rios, the nuclear reaction produces BeO or Be (OH)2, which diffuses through the atmosphere to form an aerosol that is deposited on the surface by fallout. In most environments, the Be-7 binds rapidly and strongly in the surface soil, decaying by electron capture with emission of gamma rays of 477.56 keV and half-life of 53 days. Natural Activity of Be-7 is 0.01 Bq/kg. While samples are not marked with specific amounts, all detections pertaining to this study were estimates well above that amount.

N. Pacific



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SROR1.3

Blue Mtns, OR

8/14/15

2/25/16

Same site as SROR1.1-2012 and SROR1.2-2014



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 162.4 Bq/kg, 1.29% U235 enrichment, K40 179.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1459.3, 401.8, 661.6, 569.1, 604.8, 795.6, 477.0, 622.0, 834.6, 29.8, 1567.6, 163.1, 145.0, 46.3, 186.4, 351.8, 1001.6, 63.2, 312.4, 86.5, 59.7, 861.2, 911.1, 968.5, 238.9, possible Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, M54, I129; Cs137 8.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%); Cs134 ~4.4 Bq/kg

SROR3.1

Jordan Valley, OR

7/16/15

2/22/16

Top 1” among some weeds



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 <74.4 Bq/kg, 0.51% U235 enrichment, K40 179.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 131.5, 662.0, 1462.1, 609.9, 352.1, 1001.3, 59.8, 860.5, 277.8, 1619.6, 912.3, 604.9, 796.0, 477.6, 621.8, 1173.8, 29.6, 722.5, 766.5, 1567.2, possible Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106;Cs137 6.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.8 Bq/kg

SROR4.1

McDermitt, OR

7/16/15

3/7/16

Top 1” among sage brush



Th232 ~75 Bq/kg, U238 <51.8 Bq/kg, 0.47% U235 enrichment, K40 193.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.5, 1621.9, 278.1, 311.2, 1001.1, 609.9, 46.3, 143.3, 163.5, 401.5, 1459.8, 131.9, 662.0, 563.2, 795.6, 802.7, 477.7, 1332.2, 834.3, 29.7, 765.8, 1566.8, possible Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54, I129; Cs137 4.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SROR5.1

Farewell Bend, OR

8/4/15

3/5/16

Top 1” from under 1” weeds



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 103.8 Bq/kg, 1.63% U235 enrichment, K40 105.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.2, 969.2, 1621.0, 59.5, 311.9, 62.8, 311.5, 186.1, 294.8, 609.3, 1764.7, 163.4, 1459.8, 661.7, 563.2, 796.0, 477.5, 1173.3, 1332.7, possible Am241, Be7, Co60; Cs137 2.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.7 Bq/kg

SROR6.1

Port Orford, OR

9/16/15

3/8/16



SAND

Th232 ND, U238 <38.1 Bq/kg, 0.75% U235 enrichment, K40 86.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 860.7, 60.0, 311.5, 610.6, 143.4, 1459.5, 131.2, 661.3, 563.5, 569.1, 604.9, 801.7, 477.8, 1173.4, 1331.5, 29.7, 721.8, 766.6, 440.4, 1566.1, large annihilation peak, possible Am241, Be7, Co60, I129, U233; Cs137 3.8 +/- 0.2 Bq/kg (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRWA1.2

Kennewick, WA

8/12/15

2/24/16




Th232 ND, possible U232, U238 69.9 Bq/kg, 0.7% U235 enrichment, K40 <114.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 662.5, 163.6, 144.0, 609.5, 351.8, 295.5, 185.0, 63.4, 859.8, 583.2, 277.5, 1620.5, 569.3, 605.3, 802.3, 1173.3, 722.9, possible Am241; Cs137 2.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%); Cs134 ~ 1.6 Bq/kg

SRWA2.1

Liberty, WA

8/6/15

2/19/16

Top 1” in sage and cheat grass



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <57.5 Bq/kg, 1.1% U235 enrichment, K40 106.3 Bq/kg; Detections: 969.4, 1621.3, 582.2, 1001.2, 186.2, 295.1, 1765.0, 46.0, 143.9, 163.4, 1459.7, 130.9, 662.1, 604.6, 834.9, 766.1, 441.4, 1567.1, Mn54, U233, Pa234m; Cs137 8.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 4.5 Bq/kg

SRWA3.1

Desert Aire, WA

8/6/15

2/25/16

Lots of little rocks and some dried weeds in sample.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 114.2 Bq/kg, 0.67% U235 enrichment, K40 310.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1461.9, 131.5, 662.0, 351.2, 295.4, 186.1, 1001.5, 63.2, 312.6, 59.6, 861.2, 1620.4, 238.6, 968.2, 910.7, 477.7, 1173.9 (wide), 1331.5(wide), 30.4, 721.4, 646.3-Os185, 1836.3-Y88; Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Cs137 2.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%); Cs134 not detected

SRWA4.1

Kennewick, WA

8/6/15

2/19/16

Top 1” in weeds



Th232 ND, U238 <74.4 Bq/kg, 0.76% U235 enrichment, K40 221.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 662.1, 1460.0, 144.2, 1764.4, 609.8, 187.0, 1000.9, 312.1, 59.5, 859.4, possible 1620.5, 238.6, 604.9, 477.9, 1173.1, 1332.9, 30.0, 721.5, 767.3, 1566.9, Am241, U232, Pa234m, Be7, Co60, I129; Cs137 1.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRWA5.1

Pasco, WA

8/12/15

2/21/16

From top 1” in sand and weeds



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg if any, U238 67.2 Bq/kg, 1.66% U235 enrichment, K40 181.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1621.3, 277.7, 860.4, 59.3, 311.8, 64.0, 186.4, 609.5, 1763.9, 1460.1, 131.6, 661.5, 478.1, 835.6, 29.0, 721.2, 766.1, 440.8, 1567.3, possible Am241, U232, U233, Be7, Mn54, I129;Cs137 4.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%); Cs134 Not Detected <3.2 Bq/kg

SRWA6.1

Eltopia, WA

8/12/15

2/23/16




Th232 ND, possible U232, U233, U238 65.2 Bq/kg, 0.47% U235 enrichment, K40 205.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1461.1, 131.0, 144.2, 1762.6, 295.5, 63.4, 311.5, 58.3, 1621.0, 238.0, 623.0, 1172.4, 1333.0, 722.6, 766.9, 439.7, 1565.7, possible Am241, U232, U233, Ru106/Rh106, Co60; Cs137 Not Detected <5.3 Bq/kg

SRWA7.1

Connell, WA

8/12/15

3/15/16

From top 1” among weeds



Th232 Not Detected, U232/U233 indications, U238 103.71 Bq/kg, 0.53% U235 enrichment, K40 287.0 Bq/kg; Detections: 393.1, 898.9, 1621.1, 860.6, 59.8, 311.6, 62.6, 185.4, 351.2, 609.1, 46.4, 163.4, 1461.0, 662.7, 563.6, 605.0, 621.6, 1172.1, 1332.4(sum), 834.8, 29.3, 440.8, possible Am241, U232, U233, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, Mn54, I129, Zr88, Y88; Cs137 6.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~4.2 Bq/kg

SRWA8.1

Ritzville, WA

8/12/15

2/24/16




Th232 ND ~50 if any, possible U232, U233, U238 <140.0 Bq/kg, 0.7% U235 enrichment, K40 194.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 605.0, 834.8, 29.7, 722.0, 766.2, 440.1, 662.8, 1461.6, 401.6, 144.0, 185.4, 583.7, 277.2, 238.0, possible Mn54, I129; Cs137 5.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%); Cs134 ~ 2.2 Bq/kg if any

SRWA9.1

Four Lakes, WA

8/12/15

3/2/16




Th232 ~70 Bq/kg, U238 <54.2 Bq/kg, 0.98% U235 enrichment, K40 190.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 969.8, 1621.4, 277.1, 59.7, 311.7, 1001.6, 186.3, 352.4, 609.8, 1766.1, 46.7, 1458.6, 661.9, 570.0, 604.5, 796.0, 477.3, 1332.5, 722.3, 440.2, possible Am241, Be7; Cs137 3.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 3.9 Bq/kg

SRWA10.1

Milan, WA

8/12/15

3/3/16




Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <149.7 Bq/kg, 0.72% U235 enrichment, K40 144.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 910.8, 238.3, 277.8, 583.5, 860.5, 59.8, 312.3, 186.1, 351.9, 1763.9, 401.3, 1460.4, 662.4, 563.2, 604.4, 794.6, 801.7, 1173.7, 30.6, 721.5, possible Am241, I129; Cs137 7.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.5 Bq/kg

SRWA11.1

Newport, WA

8/13/15

3/2/16

Sample taken from under 1” pine needles.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 <106.1 Bq/kg, 0.53% U235 enrichment, K40 479.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 277.4, 583.2, 860.5, 311.2, 1001.6, 186.1, 352.0, 1764.8, 114.4, 163.4, 402.1, 1459.0, 131.4, 661.3, 569.8, 604.7, 477.7, 621.6, 1172.7, 834.4, 721.7, 766.7, possible Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54;Cs137 9.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 2.2 Bq/kg


S. Pacific



Date Collected

Date Tested

Description

SRCA2.1

Fenner, CA

7/10/15

3/17/16

From untreated soil under a manzanita bush.



Th232 ND, U238 61.2 Bq/kg, 0.43% U235 enrichment, K40 95.4 Bq/kg; Detections: 1460.0, 662.4, 563.2, 569.1, 604.8, 795.6, 802.1, 621.2, 1173.2, 1332.7, 29.9, 766.3, 1567.2, 63.0, 311.7, 59.6, 1620.4, possible Am241, U232, U233, Pa234m, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 6.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.3 Bq/kg

SRCA3.1

Barstow, CA

7/10/15

3/20/16

From top 1” among weeds under a fence.



Th232 ND, U238 <40.9 Bq/kg, 1.59% U235 enrichment, K40 74.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 311.8, 859.5, 277.1, 1620.4, 238.9, 1000.9, 185.8, 294.9, 351.0, 1765.2, 143.8, 401.3, Am241, U232, U233, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54, 1460.1, 131.0, 661.4, 478.5, 835.2, 766.4, 440.5, 1566.9, possible Am241, U232, U233, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54;Cs137 2.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SRCA4.1

Huntington Beach, CA

7/11/15

2/15/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~20Bq/kg, U238 <60.4 Bq/kg, .25% U235 enrichment, K40 124.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 238.1, 1619.8, 59.1, 86.3, 311.9, 1002.0, 352.1, 163.4, 1459.1, 130.6, 478.1, 622.3, 1173.2, 834.7, 722.2, 766.8, 1567.6, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54; Cs137 Not Detected <8.3 Bq/kg, Cs134 Not Detected

SRCA5.1

Santa Clarita, CA

7/14/15

3/20/16

Top 1” from side of hill, some weeds.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 64.6 Bq/kg, 0.51% U235 enrichment, K40 387.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.8, 969.2, 277.5, 861.2, 59.5, 311.1, 63.9, 143.1, 163.4, 400.2, 1461.9, 662.6, 605.2, 796.4, 478.0, 1173.8, 1332.5, 835.2, 29.9, 722.2, Am241, Be7, Mn54, Co60, I129;Cs137 3.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.1 Bq/kg

SRCA6.1

Inyokern, CA

7/15/15

2/18/16

Top 1” from near fence..some weedy material in sample.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 63.0 Bq/kg, 1.12% U235 enrichment K40 357.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.5, 968.4, 278.1, 583.2, 859.4, 59.8, 312.5, 63.2, 185.8, 295.4, 352.1, 163.7, 1459.4, 660.5, 604.3, 795.9, 477.8, 1173.1, 1333.1, 722.5, 440.8, 1567.1, Am241, U233, Be7, Co60; Cs137 6.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.5 Bq/kg

SRCA7.1

Big Pine, CA

7/15/15

2/18/16

From top 1”..noted weeds on top removed, none in sample.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 <92.8 Bq/kg, 1.31% U235 enrichment, K40 319.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.4, 1620.4, 278.0, 583.0, 59.1, 312.1, 184.6, 351.8, 1763.2, 47.0, 163.5, 1459.5, 662.5, 604.7, 795.6, 477.9, 1173.8, 834.8, 29.7, 721.9, 767.1, Am241, Be7, Mn54, I129; Cs137 12.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.7 (6.1%), Cs134 2.5 Bq/kg

SRCA8.1

Porterville, CA

3/19/15

3/27/16

Top 1” untreated back yard, no vegetation.



Th232 ND, U232/U233 indicators, U238 63.3 Bq/kg, 3.4% U235 enrichment, K40 <177.5 Bq/kg; Detections: 238.3, 1620.8, 277.2, 861.2, 311.8, 63.8, 353.2, 143.7, 163.2, 661.8, 605.0, 796.0, 29.7, 721.2, 440.8, 1566.1, U232, U233, Am241, I129; Cs137 4.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.7 Bq/kg

SRNV2.1

Mina, NV

7/15/15

3/4/16

From top 1” among sage.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 49.7 Bq/kg, 0.87% U235 enrichment, K40 72.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.8, 968.4, 238.3, 1619.9, 277.4, 860.0, 58.7, 311.2, 63.8, 1001.7, 352.0, 609.4, 1763.1, 47.1, 143.9, 163.3, 1460.7, 661.8, 834.8, 722.0, 766.4, 441.0, 1565.7, Am241, Pa234m, U233, Mn54;Cs137 1.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SRNV3.1

Hawthorne, NV

7/16/15

3/3/16

From top 1” weedy area.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 <55.4 Bq/kg, 1.7% U235 enrichment, K40 86.6 Bq/kg; Detections: 722.6, 766.7, 440.3, 1566.9, 29.6, 1332.7, 1173.4, 477.5, 795.3, 569.4, 563.6, 662.2, 131.5, 1461.6, 402.0, 163.4, 143.0, 1763.9, 352.2, 185.8, 86.0, 311.8, 277.1, 1620.3, 238.6, 911.9, Am241, U233, Be7, Co60, I129; Cs137 2.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.0 Bq/kg

SRNV4.1

Lovelock, NV

7/16/15

3/6/16

Top 1” untreated bare spot.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg if any, U238 104.6 Bq/kg, 1.65% U235 enrichment, K40 <128.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 238.3, 1621.4, 277.7, 59.8, 312.6, 62.9, 1001.0, 186.1, 352.2, 1764.1, 46.9, 163.2, 131.4, 661.7, 568.8, 605.0, 795.5, 802.3, 622.1, 1173.2, 1333.1, 440.0, 1566.9, Am241, Pa234m, U233, Ru106/Rh106, Co60;Cs137 1.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.4 Bq/kg

SRNV5.1

Paradise Summit, NV

7/16/15

3/1/16

Top 1” untreated bare spot.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 87.4 Bq/kg, 0.54% U235 enrichment K40 190.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 970.5, 238.1, 1620.5, 278.4, 63.3, 59.8, 1001.0, 186.2, 295.9, 352.0, 143.8, 163.5, 661.9, 1460.8, 621.4, 722.6, 766.1, 441.4, 1567.6, Am241, Pa234m, U233, Ru106/Rh106: Cs137 2.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

N. Rockies



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRID2.2

Meridian, ID

8/3/15

2/23/16

Same location as SRID2.1-2014, side of ditch among weeds.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 97.4 Bq/kg, 0.67% U235 enrichment, K40 181.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 604.2, 795.6, 721.1, 662.9, 1458.3, 164.0, 143.8, 1763.6, 186.1, 63.6, 311.8, 583.5, 911.2, Am241; Cs137 4.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 2.7 Bq/kg

SRID4.1

Nampa, ID

7/27/15

2/22/16

From top 1” bare spot.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, maybe some processed U, U238 <83.8 Bq/kg, 0.41% U235 enrichment, K40 <388.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 662.5, 563.2, 604.1, 795.0, 802.5, 477.5, 622.0, 835.4, 29.5, 163.3, 46.1, 1764.0, 295.1, 1000.6, 311.3, 59.9, 239.1, 968.5, 911.2, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 4.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 4.5 Bq/kg

SRID5.1

Priest River, ID

8/13/15

2/29/16

From top 1” among weeds.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 85.9 Bq/kg, 0.75% U235 enrichment, K40 111.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.6, 1619.2, 60.1, 312.2, 63.5, 1001.6, 186.0, 294.4, 609.2, 1764.4, 143.9, 163.7, 401.4, 1460.6, 131.4, 661.3, 605.3, 796.4, 477.1, 621.4, 29.3, 766.0, 440.8, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, I129: Cs137 6.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.8 Bq/kg

SRID6.1

Bonners Ferry, ID

8/13/15

2/28/16

From top 1”, 2” dried weeds removed.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <200.0 Bq/kg, 0.66% U235 enrichment, K40 282.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.4, 238.1, 583.5, 59.2, 185.6, 351.2, 46.7, 402.7, 1460.1, 131.3, 661.7, 563.2, 569.2, 605.2, 477.6, 1332.8, 834.8, 766.7, 440.5, 1565.7, U233, Be7, Mn54, possible Am241/Pa234m: Cs137 2.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.6 Bq/kg

SRMT1.1

Conrad, MT

8/18/15

2/28/16




Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 98.0 Bq/kg, 0.94% U235 enrichment, K40 225.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.5, 237.8, 583.4, 859.8, 59.8, 311.6, 64.0, 1001.3, 186.0, 1763.9, 1459.4, 662.0, 604.8, 477.5, 834.7, 722.4, 1565.9, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54; Cs137 3.2 +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.0 Bq/kg

SRMT2.1

Circle, MT

8/19/15

3/4/16

Top 1”, removed 2” matted weeds.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 <74.1 Bq/kg, 0.87% U235 enrichment, K40 73.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 969.2, 238.4, 1621.7, 277.9, 58.9, 393.3, 898.3, 312.4, 1000.6, 185.8, 295.5, 253.4, 1764.6, 46.5, 163.4, 400.9, 1461.1, 131.7, 662.8, 563.7, 604.7, 801.8, 1333.3, 834.8, 440.6, 1566.9, Am241, Pa234m, U233, Mn54, Zr88, Y88; Cs137 4.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.8 Bq/kg

S. Rockies



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRAZ2.2

Holbrook, AZ

7/9/15

2/21/16

Same location as SRAZ2.1-2014, top 1” among sage and weeds.



Th232 ND, possible U232, U233, U238 <51.7 Bq/kg, 0.58% U235 enrichment, K40 132.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1620.3, 311.9, 1000.3, 295.2, 1765.4, 1458.2, 131.9, 661.7, 604.3, 795.6, 622.3, 1172.3, 1332.9, 721.2, 440.1, 1565.6, Am241, Pa234m, U232, U233, Ru106/Rh106, Co60; Cs137 9.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.2 Bq/kg

SRAZ4.1

Chambers, AZ

7/8/15

2/20/16

Top 1” among weeds



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <73.9 Bq/kg, 0.44% U235 enrichment, K40 126.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.8, 968.1, 277.9, 583.9, 850.1, 59.2, 295.1, 1459.7, 131.3, 661.1, 795.4, 802.1, 621.6, 1173.1, 1332.5, 29.3, 722.9, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 5.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.2 Bq/kg

SRAZ5.1

Williams, AZ

7/9/15

2/16/16

Top 1” from under pine trees and brush, needles removed.



Th232 ~55 Bq/kg, U238 76.6 Bq/kg, 0.76% U235 enrichment, K40 73.9 Bq/kg; Detections: 911.5, 1620.3, 583.2, 859.4, 63.2, 1001.3, 185.7, 295.2, 351.3, 144.0, 164.2, 1459.5, 131.4, 661.0, 605.3, 796.2, 1332.1, 834.8, 722.5, 765.9, 440.2, Pa234m, Mn54; Cs137 5.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%); Cs134 ~3.4 Bq/kg

SRAZ6.1

Golden Valley, AZ

7/9/15

2/24/16

Top 1” among sage and cacti



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 <88.3 Bq/kg, 0.68% U235 enrichment, K40 345.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1461.6, 131.7, 661.1, 1331.6, 834.6, 440.2, 1566.5, 402.1, 609.4, 352.0, 1001.4, 238.6, 911.3, Pa234m, U233, Mn54; Cs137 8.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%); Cs134 not detected – odd both 440 and 1567 while 911 is present and no 1764. 477 and 621 were visible peaks yet not statistically significant.

SRNM4.1

Tucumcari, NM

7/6/15

3/16/16

Top 1” about 30’ behind abandoned gas station, bare spot.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 48.7 Bq/kg, 0.79% U235 enrichment, K40 92.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.5, 1620.3, 277.4, 583.8, 859.1, 59.0, 311.4, 63.9, 609.6, 1763.6, 401.9, 1460.5, 796.1, 477.1, 834.7, 29.5, 722.3, 766.8, 440.2, Am241, Be7, Mn54, I129; Cs137 Not Detected <5.4 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~1.4 Bq/kg

SRNM5.1

Moriarty, NM

7/6/15

3/22/16

Top 1” from weedy area, a few in sample.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 108.1 Bq/kg, 0.33% U235 enrichment, K40 229.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.6, 277.6, 582.8, 58.9, 312.2, 63.7, 295.6, 1765.5, 46.5, 163.4, 401.0, 1460.7, 130.6, 661.6, 605.0, 795.4, 478.0, 722.2, 440.2, Am241, Be7; Cs137 5.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.6 Bq/kg

SRNM6.1

Albuquerque, NM

7/8/15

2/17/16

Top 1” from weedy area, a few in sample.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 59.0 Bq/kg, 0.38% U235 enrichment, K40 293.3 Bq/kg; Detections: 1457.8, 662.0, 401.6, 1764.3, 351.9, 62.8, 59.9, 860.0, 277.1, 968.5, 911.9, 1173.5, 1332.7, 29.7, Am241, I129, Co60; Cs137 8.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%); Cs134 Not Detected

SRNM7.1

Grants, NM

7/8/15

3/20/16

From top 1” side of hill. Near largest uranium mining complex in the US 1952-1985.



Th232 ND, U238 152.1 Bq/kg, 1.29% U235 enrichment, K40 71.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 59.7, 311.8, 63.6, 1000.9, 186.6, 296.2, 351.6, 609.5, 1764.7, 143.4, 1461.0, 660.8, 604.9, 795.8, 477.1, 622.6, 1173.1, 30.2, 721.2, 766.9, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 5.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.8 Bq/kg

NW Central



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRND1.1

Belfield, ND

8/19/15

3/5/16

Top 1” from under 2” of leaves.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 90.6 Bq/kg, 0.95% U235 enrichment, K40 <146.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 427.9, 636.1, 1689.8, 1836.5, 898.6, 721.1, 29.6, 834.8, 1332.7, 477.6, 662.4, 1763.7, 295.3, 186.5, 1001.0, 63.9, 311.8, 59.9, 1621.4, 968.5, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Mn54, I129, Sb125, Sb124, Y88; Cs137 2.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected, probable Sb125, Sb124, Y88, Lu177m, Ta182, possible Xe127, No I131

SRND2.1

Mandan, ND

8/20/15

2/26/16

Top 1” from side of bare embankment under trees.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 <67.0 Bq/kg, 0.77% U235 enrichment, K40 305.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1461.4, 131.1, 163.4, 144.0, 46.6, 352.6, 294.8, 186.3, 60.0, 911.6, 1173.8, 1332.1(possible sum), 392.7, 898.3, 1836.5, 29.8, 722.6, Am241, Zr88/Y88, possible Co60; Cs137 Not Detected <11.0 Bq/kg

SRSD1.1

Mobridge, SD

8/21/15

2/27/16

Top 1” from under 2” matted grass.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 103.3 Bq/kg, may be some processed U, 0.94% U235 enrichment, K40 297.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 970.5, 63.7, 1764.3, 163.4, 1460.7, 662.3, 795.6, 477.4, 766.2, Be7, Possible Pa234m; Cs137 4.6 +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.8 Bq/kg

SRSD2.1

Witten, SD

8/22/15

2/29/16

Top 1” taken from field of scattered weeds, a skosh of plant matter in sample.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 71.1 Bq/kg, 1.66% U235 enrichment, K40 <70.5 Bq/kg, measured for I131, Te131m and Os185, visible peaks but not statistically significant on all; Detections (keV): 440.6, 30.2, 834.8, 1332.1(sum), 795.7, 604.7, 662.2, 143.7, 46.3, 609.5, 295.6, 186.9, 63.3, 311.9, 59.5, 861.1, 1621.0, 621.4, 911.6, Y88/Zr88/Co58, 898.9, 1837.6, 811.0, 393.0, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54, I129, Zr88, Y88: Cs137 7.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SRNE5.2

Kearney, NE

8/24/15

3/3/16

Same site as SRNE5.1-2014.



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 <49.0 Bq/kg, 1.69% U235 enrichment, K40 68.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.4, 238.2, 1620.3, 277.8, 583.6, 860.4, 59.2, 312.1, 185.5, 352.4, 46.6, 143.6, 402.2, 1461.3, 662.7, 604.7, 621.0, 1332.2, 29.7, 1566.1, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 3.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 1.7 Bq/kg

SRIA2.2

Underwood, IA

8/27/15

3/6/16

Same site as SRIA2.1-2013.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 49.8 Bq/kg, 1.14% U235 enrichment, K40 307.8 Bq/kg; Detections: 911.6, 968.5, 238.6, 1620.7, 63.2, 186.0, 296.0, 144.0, 163.1, 401.9, 1462.5, 131.7, 661.9, 563.5, 569.6, 605.2, 795.9, 802.4, 622.9, 1173.8, 1332.4, 29.9, 722.4, 766.4, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129;Cs137 7.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.9 Bq/kg

SRIA6.1

Oxford, IA

8/27/15

2/26/16

Top 1” from vacant lot, plant matter removed.



Th232 ~40 Bq/kg, U238 67.9 Bq/kg, 0.50% U235 enrichment, K40 368.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 402.4, 1460.6, 131.4, 661.9, 605.0, 621.7, 1173.2, 1332.3, 766.8, 441.1, 1567.0, 46.7, 63.7, 859.1, 583.7, 278.0, 968.3, 911.4, 29.5, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129, U233, Possible Pa234m; Cs137 5.2 +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134~2.2 Bq/kg

SRMO3.1

Sullivan, MO

6/30/15

3/16/16

Top 1” in dense bushes 2” matted leaves



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 151.2 Bq/kg, 0.48% U235 enrichment, K40 293.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.8, 1621.3, 277.9, 583.2, 860.5, 311.6, 64.3, 185.3, 609.3, 1764.9, 47.0, 401.5, 1459.5, 130.9, 622.8, 568.8, 605.2, 794.9, 802.3, 477.5, 621.7, 1172.8 (sum), 30.0, 721.3, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Be7, I129; Cs137 8.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SRMO4.1

Rolla, MO

7/1/15

2/18/16

Top 1” from bare spot on side of otherwise vegetated embankment



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 <72.4 Bq/kg, 0.39% U235 enrichment, K40 192.2 Bq/kg; Detections: 969.9, 1620.5, 583.5, 59.5, 311.9, 1001.4, 1764.5, 46.2, 163.7, 1462.3, 131.5, 661.4, 796.0, 477.8, 622.6, 1173.2, 1332.5, 29.5, 721.8, 765.0, 440.6, 1566.9, Am241, U233, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 2.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.1 Bq/kg

SRMO5.1

Lebanon, MO

7//1/15

3/17/16

Top 1” under trees, no vegetation.



Th232 ND, U238 <85.7 Bq/kg, 1.1% U235 enrichment, K40 214.7 Bq/kg; Detections: 1461.0, 131.4, 661.6, 402.3, 163.1, 352.7, 185.8, 311.5, 59.6, 277.1, 794.9, 801.7, 478.1, 1173.3, 1331.3, 29.6, 898.3, Am241, Be7, Co60, I129; Cs137 5.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRMO6.1

Halltown, MO

7/3/15

3/21/16

Top 1” under trees among tall grasses.



Th232 ~40, U238 51.4 Bq/kg, 0.78% U235 enrichment, K40 317.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.1, 969.7, 351.9, 609.7, 143.4, 163.5, 401.0, 1460.1, 238.4, 1620.7, 238.0, 582.5, 60.1, 86.9, 64.0, 660.2, 604.2, 796.0, 478.1, 621.1, 834.7, 720.8, 440.2, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Be7, Mn54; Cs137 5.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 2.8 Bq/kg


SW Central



Date Collected

Date Tested

Description

SROK1.1

White Oak, OK

7/3/15

3/19/16

Top 1” near edge of hay field.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 108.6 Bq/kg, 0.73% U235 enrichment, K40 83.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1459.9, 661.5, 401.3, 143.1, 295.1, 63.2, 311.8, 59.8, 86.6, 583.0, 238.5, 968.9, 604.4, Am241;Cs137 8.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SROK2.1

Beggs, OK

7/3/15

3/22/16

Top 1” from semi grassy vacant lot.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 <86.3 Bq/kg, 0.33% U235 enrichment, K40 345.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.6, 969.1, 583.3, 860.5, 295.9, 350.6, 609.5, 1764.7, 46.9, 144.0, 400.6, 1460.7, 661.6, 477.8, 1173.1, 1332.5, 722.2, 766.3, 440.2, 1566.9, Be7, Co60, U23; Cs137 4.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SROK3.1

Chandler, OK

7/3/15

2/22/16

Top 1” from under trees, leaves removed, some plant matter in sample



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 76.8 Bq/kg, 0.84% U235 enrichment, K40 399.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1461.0, 163.6, 401.8, 45.2, 1764.4, 609.9, 351.93, 185.5, 64.1, 311.2, 860.4, 583.1, 1621.2, 237.4, 969.1, 661.1, 477.5, 1173.1, 1333.0, 721.8, Am241, Be7, Co60; Cs137 3.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.2(6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SROK4.1

Bridgeport, OK

7/4/15

3/24/16

Top 1” from under dried grasses.



Th232 ~50, U238 56.0 Bq/kg, 0.98% U235 enrichment, K40 164.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 969.1, 238.7, 59.5, 312.8, 1458.8, 163.7, 144.1, 351.4, 186.4, 1000.7, 63.1, 660.8, 569.4, 795.2, 477.2, 621.4, 29.8, 721.3, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106/, I129; Cs137 8.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.8 Bq/kg

SROK5.1

Elk City, OK

7/15/15

2/19/16




Th232 ~20 Bq/kg w/U232/U233 markers, U238 96.0 Bq/kg, 0.54% U235 enrichment, K40 195.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.2, 237.5, 1620.1, 278.0, 583.7, 859.7, 60.6, 311.4, 63.4, 351.4, 1763.2, 46.3, 143.5, 163.5, 1459.5, 661.9, 604.1, 795.3, 478.4, 1173.4, 29.1, 722.2, 440.4, 1565.7, Am241, U233, Be7, I129; Cs137 4.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.6 Bq/kg

SRTX5.1

Alanreed, TX

7/5/15

3/23/16

Top 1” from bare spot among tall grasses.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 160.7 Bq/kg, 0.92% U235 enrichment, K40 114.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.1, 860.2, 59.9, 311.2, 63.4, 186.2, 350.5, 1765.0, 143.7, 164.0, 1459.0, 661.1, 605.0, 796.1, 1172.9, 1331.5, 835.0, 29.9, 440.5, 1566.9, Am241, Co60, Mn54, I129, U233; Cs137 8.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~4.3 Bq/kg

SRTX6.1

Palo Duro, TX

7/5/15

2/17/16

Top 1” from sandy area with prairie grass.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 <62.3 Bq/kg, 0.61% U235 enrichment, K40 <203.7 Bq/kg; Detections: 970.2, 1621.0, 277.9, 583.9, 860.3, 59.6, 311.7, 186.3, 295.1, 609.2, 1764.7, 143.9, 153.7, 401.7, 661.7, 605.1, 477.1, 621.7, 1173.4, 721.5, 439.9, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106; Cs137 3.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%); Cs134 ~1.1 Bq/kg

SRTX7.1

Adrian, TX

7/6/15

3/14/16

Top 1” from weedy area, some in sample.



Th232 ~70 Bq/kg, U232/U233 indicators, U238 122.7 Bq/kg, 0.61% U235 enrichment, K40 85.9 Bq/kg; Detections: 910.9, 968.7, 1620.7, 276.7, 583.1, 860.7, 59.2, 311.7, 63.3, 186.4, 295.4, 609.1, 46.6, 143.7, 163.0, 1459.6, 131.2, 662.8, 563.9, 1172.7, 29.7, 722.0, 766.1, Am241, I129; Cs137 5.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected ~<3.8 Bq/kg

NE Central



Date Collected

Date Tested

Description

SNIL1.1

Byron, IL

5/3/15

3/13/16




Th232 ND ~30 Bq/kg if any, U238 145.1 Bq/kg, 0.66% U235 enrichment, K40 193.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 239.2, 277.4, 861.2, 59.8, 86.9, 213.1, 64.7, 604.7, 795.4, 295.1, 609.4, 1765.4, 1461.7, 29.6, 722.4, 1566.8, Am241, I129; Cs137 Not Detected <5.7 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~2.0 Bq/kg

SRIL3.x

South Beloit, IL

7/23/15

3/1/16

Same site as SRIL3.1 (2013), due to odd results, two more samples were taken 3/28/16: SRIL3.3 from a front yard, and SRIL 3.4 from an adjacent vacant lot



SRIL3.2: Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 37.4 Bq/kg, 1.72% U235 enrichment, K40 201.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.2, 583.5, 860.5, 60.4, 86.6, 311.6, 64.6, 186.3, 294.3, 352.5, 795.7, 604.6, 1764.5, 163.6, 401.6, 1460.5, 1173.7(sum, prob Am241), 1332.6(thin), 834.5, 29.6, 766.8:Cs137 <4.8 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~2.7 Bq/kg


SRIL3.3: Cs137 5.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 661.9, 796.1, 59, 311 and 477 visible


SRIL3.4: Cs137 4.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 662.6, 604.4, 59, 311 and 477 present

SRIL6.1

Oakwood, IL

6/28/15

3/22/16

Top 1” up embankment under trees, no vegetation.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 44.8 Bq/kg, 0.8% U235 enrichment, K40 160.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 766.4, 911.4, 1620.1, 59.1, 86.5, 311.6, 63.4, 186.8, 351.6, 1765.0, 46.0, 143.1, 1461.6, 661.5, 604.7, 795.9, 477.8, 28.9, 722.2, Am241, Be7, I129; Cs137 5.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 2.0 Bq/kg

SRIL7.1

Edwardsville, IL

6/29/15

3/16/16

Top 1” from bushy area near a corn field, plant matter removed.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 <89.9 Bq/kg, 0.95% U235 enrichment, K40 236.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.5, 238.1, 1620.5, 277.9, 583.9, 860.9, 59.9, 86.8, 312.1, 1001.3, 185.8, 1764.2, 46.9, 143.7, 163.8, 401.6, 1459.5, 132.1, 661.8, 568.8, 604.9, 796.6, 802.3, 477.1, 621.2, 1332.4(sum), 29.7, 721.9, 393.6, 898.3, 1835.9, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, I129, Zr88, Y88; Cs137 13.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.8 (6.1%), Cs134 ~5.0 Bq/kg

SRIL8.1

Ophiem, IL

8/30/15

2/26/16

Edge of tree line, several inches of leaf matter removed.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 <86.6 Bq/kg, 0.76% U235 enrichment, K40 <230.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1763.7, 46.4, 143.1, 163.4, 911.6, 968.2, 1622.0, 277.4, 861.2, 59.6, Be7, Possible Am241, 662.4, 563.1, 604.3, 477.8, 721.2, 1567.5(almost 835), ; Cs137 6.5 +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.6 Bq/kg

SRIL9.1

Farina, IL

9/20/15

3/10/16




Th232 ~35 Bq/kg if any, U238 117.2 Bq/kg, 0.66% U235 enrichment, K40 77.4 Bq/kg; Detections: 238.7, 277.7, 583.2, 860.9, 312.4, 63.8, 186.0, 1460.4, 131.3, 794.6, 604.8, 477.5, 29.6, 722.1, 1566.9, Am241, Be7, I129; Cs137 Not Detected <6.5 Bq/kg, Cs134~4.3 Bq/kg

SRIL10.1

LaSalle, IL

9/26/15

3/9/16




Th232 ~20 Bq/kg if any, U238 87.0 Bq/kg, 0.95% U235 enrichment, K40 <128.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 583.2, 860.7, 63.4, 185.6, 351.4, 1764.3, 46.4, 662.8, 605.0; Cs137 4.1 +/- 0.3 Bq/kg (2.8), Cs134 ~1.0 Bq/kg – Am241 isn't significant but looks like it's there..as does Th232

SRIN4.1

Brownsburg, IN

6/26/15

3/18/16

Top 1” under trees, leaf matter removed.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 130.1 Bq/kg, 0.56% U235 enrichment, K40 133.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1460.0, 131.6, 621.6, 767.1, 1566.4, 1764.1, 185.6, 63.2, 311.8, 60.0, 860.2, 583.7, 277.6, 834.5, 1619.7, 968.5, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 Not Detected <7.0 Bq/kg, Cs134 Not Detected <3.8 Bq/kg

SROH4.2

Belmont, OH

6/26/15

3/19/16

Top 1” from tree covered area, no vegetation.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 110.8 Bq/kg, 1.09% U235 enrichment, K40 623.7 Bq/kg; Detections: 911.3, 239.3, 1620.3, 277.7, 583.2, 861.3, 59.9, 311.6, 63.7, 1001.3, 185.6, 352.7, 609.5, 1764.9, 47.0, 1459.2, 131.1, 661.5, 796.1, 604.2, 621.9, 835.6, 29.5, 766.6, 1566.9, Am241, Pa234m, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54, I129; Cs137 5.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.7 Bq/kg

SROH5.1

Mt. Sterling, OH

6/27/15

3/21/16

Top 1” from under trees, 1” leaves removed.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 89.9 Bq/kg, 1.09% U235 enrichment, K40 245.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.6, 969.0, 238.1, 1620.3, 278.3, 583.1, 859.1, 58.7, 86.3, 63.4, 186.3, 609.7, 142.8, 163.2, 1458.3, 661.7, 605.1, 795.8, 622.8, 29.5, 722.2, 766.5, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 4.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~ 4.6 Bq/kg

SE Central



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRKY3.1

Eddyville, KY

9/25/15

3/9/16




Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 42.7 Bq/kg, 0.54% U235 enrichment, K40 137.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.3, 860.3, 59.8, 86.7, 63.7, 1001.3, 295.9, 1764.5, 163.7, 401.9, 1462.1, 131.0, 661.4, 569.8, 795.2, 1173.6, 29.7, 440.5, 1566.1, Am241, U233, I129, visible 477, 835, 621; Cs137 2.2 +/- 0.1 Bq/kg (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.7 Bq/kg

SNTN1.1

Watts Bar, TN

7/1/15

3/12/16

Muddy soil between tree roots where backwater regularly saturates. About 1 mile downriver.



Th232 ND, U238 <74.3 Bq/kg, 1.65% U235 enrichment, K40 142.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1459.3, 401.3, 185.8, 295.9, 86.6, 238.2, 277.1, 795.9, 1620.6, 1173.1, 1332.4, 29.9, 677.0, 440.8, Co60, I129; Cs137 <2.8 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~2.6 Bq/kg

SRTN6.2

Philadelphia, TN

6/28/15

3/18/16

Same site as SRTN6.1, bare spot in open field



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 66.1 Bq/kg, 0.49% U235 enrichment, K40 112.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.8, 277.0, 860.2, 59.5, 311.5, 63.4, 1764.3, 46.3, 163.6, 401.6, 1460.0, 661.8, 563.2, 569.4, 621.6, 1173.5, 29.8, 722.2, 766.4, 1567.1, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 9.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected <5.1 Bq/kg

New England



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRCT5.1

Bridgeport, CT

12/16/15

4/3/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~50 Bq/kg, U238 <105.6 Bq/kg, 2.2% U235 enrichment, K40 96.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 661.5, 1460.8, 163.3, 295.8, 312.4, 60.0, 860.5, 277.0, 1621.62, 237.9, 968.3, 911.0, 604.9, 796.2, 477.7, 621.7, 1173.3, 834.1, 29.3, 723.5, 766.6, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54, I129; Cs137 1.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.1 Bq/kg

SRCT6.1

Niantic, CT

12/16/15

3/31/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 25.3 Bq/kg, 0.89% U235 enrichment, K40 74.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.0, 1619.9, 584.4, 859.8, 59.2, 311.6, 63.4, 1000.6, 295.9, 352.1, 1764.0, 143.4, 1459.7, 662.3, 604.7, 477.0, 622.8, 1173.1, 1332.7, 29.7, 721.7, 440.4, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 3.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.2 Bq/kg

SRCT7.1

Enfield, CT

12/18/15

4/1/16

Very sandy dark soil from riverbank. Owner recalled presence of fish 40 years ago, none today.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 78.4 Bq/kg, 1.11% U235 enrichment, K40 135.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.7, 967.9, 1620.1, 59.2, 63.5, 186.3, 295.1, 1763.7, 143.6, 163.1, 1461.7, 131.6, 660.5, 605.2, 477.2, 622.1, 1173.3, 1332.8, 29.5, 440.8, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 2.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.5 Bq/kg

SRCT8.1

Middlebury, CT

12/18/15

4/6/16

Dried muddy soil from creek bed.



Th232 ~65 Bq/kg, U238 82.0 Bq/kg, 0.84% U235 enrichment, K40 <393.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.8, 968.3, 1619.8, 860.5, 59.8, 63.7, 1002.0, 186.9, 296.1, 351.9, 131.4, 661.7, 604.9, 477.0, 622.6, 1173.4, 1331.3, 766.7, Be7, Pa234m, Ru106/Rh106, Co60; Cs137 1.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.3 Bq/kg

SRMA2.1

Sharon, MA

12/17/15

4/2/16

Loose dark soil with dark, small river rocks, few and/or very small ones in sample.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 46.3 Bq/kg, 0.72% U235 enrichment, K40 249.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.6, 1620.2, 278.3, 859.4, 59.7, 86.3, 64.7, 186.8, 295.6, 46.6, 163.8, 1460.7, 662.1, 478.3, 834.5, 29.5, 721.9, 440.3, Be7, Mn54, I239; Cs137 9.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected <5.8 Bq/kg

SRMA3.1

Waltham, MA

12/17/15

4/4/16

Dark soil with small rocks, taken from top 1” under trees, no vegetation on top.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <148.9 Bq/kg, 0.92% U235 enrichment, K40 142.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 401.7, 1459.9, 661.7, 605.0, 834.2, 163.4, 143.9, 186.7, 860.4, 277.2, 1620.5, 968.8, Mn54; Cs137 3.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.6 Bq/kg

SRMA4.1

Salem, MA

12/17/15

4/6/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 58.5 Bq/kg, 1.67% U235 enrichment, K40 259.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.1, 969.2, 278.1, 583.0, 860.1, 313.3, 64.1, 186.2, 144.3, 402.5, 1458.9, 661.0, 605.6, 622.0, 1172.4, 1331.9, 834.5, 29.8, 721.5, 1567.0, Am241, Co60, Mn54, I129; Cs137 5.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.8 Bq/kg

SRMA5.1

Newburyport, MA

12/17/15

3/26/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 60.6 Bq/kg, 1.13% U235 enrichment, K40 82.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.0, 969.2, 1619.0, 583.0, 311.3, 64.1, 186.4, 609.0, 163.4, 401.3, 1460.8, 130.6, 796.4, 621.4, 1174.3, 1332.6, 835.4, 721.5, 767.0, 30.8, Am241, Co60, Mn54, I129; Cs137 Not Detected <4.1 Bq/kg, Cs134 Not Detected

SRMA6.1

Millers Falls, MA

12/17/15

3/25/16

Dark sandy soil near river bank about 6 miles south of Vermont Yankee NPP



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 77.7 Bq/kg, 0.96% U235 enrichment, K40 <442.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.2, 238.3, 1619.5, 278.0, 59.5, 311.8, 63.9, 185.5, 610.2, 46.3, 143.9, 163.4, 661.8, 604.6, 621.4, 1333.2, 834.6, 29.6, 721.1, 440.6, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 9.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SRMA7.1

Northampton, MA

12/18/15

4/8/16




Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <89.5 Bq/kg, 1.58% U235 enrichment, K40 362.7(160); Detections: 910.5, 277.1, 583.1, 311.8, 186.4, 295.6, 351.5, 1765.0, 143.3, 400.1, 1461.0, 662.3, 604.3, 795.6, 621.7, 834.5, 766.1, 440.4, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 11.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.7 (6.1%), Cs134 ~4.7 Bq/kg

SRMA8.1

Springfield, MA

12/18/15

4/9/16

Rich dark soil with some root matter near river.



Th232 ~65 Bq/kg, U238 80.2 Bq/kg, 0.48% U235 enrichment, K40 <285.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 969.9, 1621.3, 277.7, 861.7, 59.5, 311.1, 63.2, 295.6, 351.0, 609.2, 1764.8, 131.1, 661.7, 605.3, 795.6, 477.6, 622.3, 1174.1, 29.6, 767.1, 1566.5, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 10.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SRME1.1

York, ME

12/17/15

3/28/16

Dark soil with some small rocks, plant and root matter. Tidal overspray.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 148.0 Bq/kg, 0.51% U235 enrichment, K40 366.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.4, 969.6, 238.0, 584.0, 86.3, 63.5, 185.9, 352.1, 1764.5, 46.0, 402.2, 1461.4, 131.1, 662.7, 604.7, 796.0, 834.5, 29.5, Mn54, I129; Cs137 8.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.6 Bq/kg

SRNH2.1

Hampton, NH

12/17/15

3/27/16

Sand – tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ND, U238 50.9 Bq/kg, 1.1% U235 enrichment, K40 401.8 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 237.8, 312.6, 63.5, 186.5, 295.1, 1765.0, 402.0, 1459.3, 662.9, 605.6, 795.3, 478.0, 1173.6, 1332.5, 30.0, 720.9, 440.8, Be7, Co60, I129; Cs137 2.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.4 Bq/kg

SRNH3.1

Hillsboro, NH

12/16/15

3/30/16

Dark sandy soil w/small black and white rocks and plant matter.



Th232 ~65 Bq/kg, U238 36.3 Bq/kg, 1.18% U235 enrichment K40 488.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 969.0, 1619.7, 278.2, 583.5, 860.4, 59.5, 312.1, 63.4, 186.1, 352.1, 1764.3, 163.2, 401.0, 1459.3, 130.4, 605.1, 795.4, 622.9, 1171.4, 1331.9, 834.4, 30.2, 767.1, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 Not Detected <5.9 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~2.8 Bq/kg

SRRI1.1

Charlestown, RI

12/17/15

4/8/16

Shore sand – near 1964 criticality site



Th232 ~20 Bq/kg, U238 56.9 Bq/kg, 0.97% U235 enrichment, K40 84.1 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 1621.0, 278.5, 311.8, 63.3, 1001.3, 186.0, 352.5, 609.3, 401.9, 1459.6, 662.2, 604.1, 796.4, 478.0, 721.5, 440.3, Am241, Be7; Cs137 5.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.6 Bq/kg

SRRI2.1

Narragansett, RI

12/17/15

4/7/16

Top 1” from under trees, leaf matter removed.



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 <71.0 Bq/kg, 0.96% U235 enrichment, K40 325.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 661.1, 1459.5, 401.5, 163.4, 132.3, 350.2, 296.0, 311.9, 860.4, 584.6, 1620.7, 968.8, 911.5, 569.6, 794.7, 1173.1, 722.4, Am241; Cs137 8.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.3 Bq/kg

SRRI3.1

North Kingston, RI

12/17/15

4/6/16

Dry soil with lots of roots and a few tiny rocks, ~3 miles from Electric Boat



Th232 ~55 Bq/kg, U238 49.0 Bq/kg, 0.59% U235 enrichment, K40 220.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.6, 968.1, 277.1, 86.3, 312.2, 63.8, 295.3, 352.1, 1764.3, 402.1, 1457.8, 130.7, 663.0, 795.6, 621.8, 1173.0, 1332.6, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Co60; Cs137 5.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.3 Bq/kg

SRRI4.1

Johnstown, RI

12/17/15

4/4/16

Dark soil with a few roots, no rocks.



Th232 ~90 Bq/kg, U238 122.3 Bq/kg, 0.25% U235 enrichment, K40 117.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 970.0, 238.4, 1620.6, 584.5, 859.8, 312.4, 64.5, 1001.6, 295.2, 164.1, 401.0, 1459.6, 131.1, 661.3, 604.6, 621.4, 1174.0, 1332.4, 30.8, 722.2, 441.3, 1567.3, Am241, U233, Pa234m, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I129; Cs137 9.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.6 (6.1%), Cs134 ~5.6 Bq/kg

SRVT2.1

Brattleboro, VT

12/17/15

3/24/16

Dark soil with small rocks.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 44.0 Bq/kg, 1.36% U235 enrichment, K40 234.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 969.3, 238.0, 1620.5, 859.8, 60.1, 311.4, 63.5, 186.2, 609.4, 46.3, 401.5, 1460.0, 660.8, 604.4, 795.5, 622.6, 1173.4, 1332.4, 29.8, 722.7, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, I12; Cs137 6.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.3 Bq/kg

N. Atlantic



Date collected

Date tested

Description

SRDE1.1

Middletown, DE

12/16/15

3/25/16

Sand – tidal overflow, west of Salem NPP


SAND

Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 118.2 Bq/kg, 0.52% U235 enrichment, K40 <273.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 969.2, 238.3, 1620.9, 277.7, 583.8, 59.8, 63.0, 1001.9, 186.4, 351.9, 1764.3, 143.9, 163.4, 662.9, 604.7, 622.3, 1173.8, 833.8, 30.4, 721.1, 440.1, I129, Ru106/Rh106, Mn5; Cs137 7.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.5 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.3 Bq/kg

SRDE2.1

Woodland Beach, DE

12/16/15

4/2/16

Sand – tidal overflow, about 20 miles south of Salem NPP


SAND

Th232 ~15 Bq/kg, U238 28.1 Bq/kg, 1.76% U235 enrichment, K40 147.9 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 604.1, 796.4, 661.9, 131.2, 1460.3, 401.7, 609.5, 351.8, 295.1, 185.5, 63.7, 59.7, 860.5, 277.4, 1621.7, 238.1, 911.1; Cs137 4.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.7 Bq/kg Bq/kg

SRDE3.1

Frederica, DE

12/16/15

3/29/16

Fairly wet still when sealed, very little plant matter, no rocks.



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 110.6 Bq/kg, 1.09% U235 enrichment, K40 300.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.5, 969.0, 238.0, 278.0, 312.7, 63.1, 185.0, 352.7, 47.4, 142.5, 163.2, 401.1, 1460.5, 132.4, 662.7, 606.6, 796.1, 478.4, 622.0, 834.9, 30.1, 721.2, 765.8, 440.3, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 2.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRDE4.1

Rehoboth Beach, DE

12/16/15

4/7/16

Sand – tidal overflow, very few or little shells


SAND

Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 29.5 Bq/kg, 0.79% U235 enrichment, K40 115.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 910.6, 968.6, 238.0, 1621.0, 277.1, 582.9, 860.5, 311.3, 63.7, 185.6, 351.5, 610.4, 1764.4, 1460.3, 132.0, 662.7, 569.8, 795.6, 621.8, 834.8, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 4.0 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 1.0 Bq/kg

SRMD1.2

Windsor Mill, MD

11/22/15

3/7/16

Same site as SRMD1.1-2013



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 65.2 Bq/kg, 1.34% U235 enrichment, K40 386.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.1, 968.5, 1622.2, 277.5, 860.6, 311.6, 63.7, 185.3, 351.2, 609.6, 46.3, 143.6, 163.7, 1460.0, 621.6, 1174.2, 1333.5, 834.8, 766.4, 440.5, 1566.7, 937.6, 657.2, 1384.0, Am241, U233, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54, Co60, Ag110m; Cs137 <9.4 Bq/kg, Cs134 Not Detected

SRMD2.2

Halfway, MD

12/11/15

3/30/16

Same site as SRMD2.1-2013



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 51.8 Bq/kg, 1.68% U235 enrichment, K40 421.2 Bq/kg; Detections: 911.1, 969.9, 584.1, 860.9, 310.4, 63.7, 186.1, 352.1, 1764.4, 46.3, 163.3, 400.6, 1459.2, 663.0, 605.0, 477.8, 440.2, 1567.6, Am241, U233, Be7; Cs137 6.8 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.5 Bq/kg

SRNJ2.1

Cape May, NJ

12/16/15

3/29/16

Sand – tidal overflow


SAND

Th232 ~15 Bq/kg, U238 26.5 Bq/kg, 1.44% U235 enrichment, K40 141.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.9, 969.2, 238.3, 1619.6, 583.6, 312.2, 62.8, 1000.6, 186.4, 46.3, 401.1, 1458.9, 662.0, 605.3, 795.3, 478.4, 621.8, 1173.3, 29.9, 721.9, 766.3, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 2.9 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~0.8 Bq/kg

SRNJ3.1

Atlantic City, NJ

12/16/15

3/27/16

Sand – tidal overflow, very few shells if any


SAND

Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 49.9 Bq/kg, 1.11% U235 enrichment, K40 57.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.6, 237.1, 278.5, 582.7, 86.0, 311.4, 64.0, 1001.4, 186.6, 609.1, 1764.2, 143.6, 164.0, 401.9, 1461.1, 661.8, 605.3, 477.4, 1173.4, 1332.5, 29.6, 720.9, 440.8, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Co60, I129; Cs137 2.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~0.9 Bq/kg

SRNJ4.1

Little Egg Harbor, NJ

12/16/15

4/9/16

Sand from wooded area, very little plant matter in sample


SAND

Th232 ~40 Bq/kg, U238 <72.2 Bq/kg, 0.96% U235 enrichment, K40 196.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.5, 238.6, 1621.1, 583.1, 861.3, 311.9, 186.9, 1763.9, 1459.3, 131.1, 661.1, 604.7, 796.0, 477.6, 621.7, 29.6, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, I129; Cs137 3.5 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.4 Bq/kg

SRNJ5.1

Seaside Heights, NJ

12/16/15

3/24/16

Sand, tidal overflow, little or no shells


SAND

Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 42.3 Bq/kg, 1.7% U235 enrichment, K40 <322.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.7, 969.4, 277.9, 859.8, 59.7, 311.4, 63.7, 1000.6, 186.8, 295.9, 1764.5, 46.0, 402.2, 131.8, 661.6, 605.0, 477.2, 621.1, 1332.4, 766.3, Am241, Pa234m, Be7, Ru106/Rh106; Cs137 5.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (1.6%), Cs134 ~1.1 Bq/kg

SRNJ6.1

Allentown, NJ

12/16/15

4/7/16

Rich soil with some plant matter in sample.



Th232 ~55 Bq/kg, U238 67.9 Bq/kg, 0.23% U235 enrichment, K40 353.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 661.1, 131.4, 1458.7, 46.3, 1764.5, 609.2, 295.2, 62.8, 311.4, 59.6, 860.1, 1621.3, 477.5, 622.0, 1173.8, 1332.2, 834.6, 440.5, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, Mn54; Cs137 4.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected <3.0 Bq/kg

SRNJ7.1

Oakland, NJ

12/18/15

4/5/16




Th232 ~36 Bq/kg, U238 84.8 Bq/kg, 0.75% U235 enrichment, K40 <268.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 143.7, 661.8, 605.1, 447.8, 834.5, 29.7, 766.0, 440.5, 609.4, 352.7, 186.5, 1001.3, 63.3, 311.3, 59.6, 860.2, 583.2, 278.3, 1619.6, 970.3, 912.0, Am241, Pa234m, Mn54, I129; Cs137 12.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.7 (6.1%), Cs134 ~6.6 Bq/kg

SRNJ8.1

Morristown, NJ

12/18/15

4/1/16

Dense dark soil with a little plant matter, no rocks.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 36.4 Bq/kg, 1.18% U235 enrichment, K40 <562.3 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.1, 1620.7, 583.9, 311.8, 63.7, 1000.6, 185.0, 351.5, 142.5, 401.3, 604.7, 795.4, 477.9, 621.1, 834.4, 722.1, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 Not Detected <10.1 Bq/kg, Cs134 ~1.8 Bq/kg

SRNY4.1

Rye, NY

12/16/15

3/30/16

Sand, tide overflow, fewbroken shells


SAND

Th232 ~15 Bq/kg, U238 <48.6 Bq/kg, 1.68% U235 enrichment, K40 82.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.8, 311.7, 186.4, 294.2, 351.1, 1765.4, 46.3, 143.1, 1459.2, 662.3, 605.2, 477.0, 29.9, 722.0, Am241, Be7, I129; Cs137 2.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRNY5.1

Bear Mtn., NY

12/18/15

2/7/16

Dark soil near bank of lake north of Indian Point NPP



Th232 ~50Bq/kg, U238 102.9 Bq/kg, 1.09% U235 enrichment, K40 <173.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1565.1, 238.3, 277.5, 312.7, 63.7, 186.4, 164.3, 1173.4, 1761.1, Am241; Cs137 Not Detected <3.4 Bq/kg

SRNY6.1

Brewster, NY

12/18/15

4/1/16

Top 1” under trees, some plant and root matter in sample.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 47.8 Bq/kg, 0.99% U235 enrichment, K40 251.2 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.4, 238.1, 1620.7, 277.0, 584.0, 312.1, 63.1, 185.1, 609.9, 1765.3, 46.4, 143.8, 401.6, 1459.9, 131.6, 661.0, 477.5, 621.9, 1173.8, 1333.3, 834.4, Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, Mn54; Cs137 5.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SRNY7.1

Stony Point, NY

12/18/15

2/7/16

Muddy backwater creek bottom downstream from Indian Point NPP



Th232 ~30Bq/kg, U238 34.8 Bq/kg, 0.22% U235 enrichment, K40 105.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 1459.2, 1764.3, 63.6, 310.7, 583.2, 277.7, 30.2, 661.2, Am241, I129; Cs137 4.4 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%)

SRPA7.2

Sinking Spring, PA

7/22/15

3/13/16

Same site as SRPA7.1-2014



Th232 ~30 Bq/kg, U238 80.7 Bq/kg, 0.95% U235 enrichment, K40 414.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.0, 968.8, 238.5, 311.7, 63.5, 1001.9, 186.1, 295.2, 351.9, 610.0, 144.0, 401.8, 1460.5, 131.5, 662.1, 569.3, 604.2, 796.1, 834.7, 1567.9, Am241, Mn54; Cs137 5.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.3 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.3 Bq/kg

SRVA2.1

Verona, VA

12/11/15

3/26/16

Top 1” from wooded area, some plant matter in sample.



Th232 ~35 Bq/kg, U238 <114.7 Bq/kg, 0.43% U235 enrichment, K40 187.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.5, 1620.3, 277.4, 583.8, 311.5, 1001.4, 185.2, 295.0, 351.1, 609.8, 1763.6, 46.6, 163.7, 401.9, 1460.8, 662.0, 569.4, 604.6, 1332.5, 835.2, 29.0, 721.5, 768.3, Am241, Pa234m, Mn54, I129; Cs137 7.2 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.3 Bq/kg

SRWV1.2

Inwood, WV

12/11/15

4/9/16

Same site as SRWV1.1-2013



Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 107.9 Bq/kg, 0.49% U235 enrichment, K40 220.7 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 912.0, 1619.7, 60.2, 311.5, 63.9, 185.8, 352.2, 1763.0, 46.3, 143.5, 401.3, 1458.9, 130.8, 661.0, 621.1, 1173.2, 721.5, 766.7, 440.8, 1565.5, Am241, U233, Ru106/Rh10; Cs137 6.7 Bq/kg +/- 0.4 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

S. Atlantic



Date collected

Date Tested

Description

SRFL7.1

Daytona Beach, FL

9/23/15

3/9/16

Sand, tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 <47.9 Bq/kg, 2.25% U235 enrichment, K40 41.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.9, 1620.1, 58.9, 86.3, 311.5, 186.4, 295.7, 164.0, 662.0, 563.5, 605.6, 795.1, 1173.2, 1333.1, 834.5, 29.9, 721.6, Am241, Co60, Mn54, I129; Cs137 12.7 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg (6.1%), Cs134 ~3.5 Bq/kg

SRFL8.1

Lake City, FL

9/21/15

3/13/16




Th232 ~20 Bq/kg if any, U238 35.2 Bq/kg, 1.35% U235 enrichment, K40 <101.0 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 968.8, 277.7, 583.5, 860.2, 63.4, 1000.9, 186.0, 609.6, 1764.3, 143.7, 662.3, 477.8, 29.7, 721.5, 1566.0, Be7, I129; Cs137 3.6 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 Not Detected

SRFL9.1

Jasper, FL

9/25/15

3/11/16

Sand, tide overflow


SAND

Th232 ~15 Bq/kg, U238 35.2 Bq/kg, 0.51% U235 enrichment, K40 <72.6 Bq/kg; Detections (keV), Am241, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, U233; Cs137 3.1 Bq/kg +/- 0.2 (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.9 Bq/kg

SRGA1.1

Cordele, GA

9/25/15

3/8/16




Th232 ~25 Bq/kg, U238 43.1 Bq/kg, 1.16% U235 enrichment, K40 67.4 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 622.1, 477.4, 834.5, 910.8, 968.6, 583.6, 63.9, 186.7, 351.9, 609.8, 1763.6, 144.4, 402.1, 1461.5, 662.5, 563.8, 795.3, Be7, Ru106/Rh106, Mn54; Cs137 3.1 +/- 0.2 Bq/kg (6.1%), Cs134 ~1.1 Bq/kg

SRNC3.1

SRNC3.1

11/27/15

3/31/16

Top 1”, middle of long-time vacant lot near construction site.



Th232 ~45 Bq/kg, U238 73.8 Bq/kg, 1.33% U235 enrichment, K40 301.5 Bq/kg; Detections (keV): 911.8, 968.2, 239.0, 277.7, 59.5, 86.6, 311.6, 63.3, 186.4, 295.1, 1765.4, 46.4, 143.4, 163.3, 1461.2, 662.2, 796.0, 620.7, 1174.0, 1332.5, 835.6, 29.2, 767.1, Am241, Ru106/Rh106, Co60, Mn54, I129; Cs137 2.3 Bq/kg +/- 0.1 (6.1%), Cs134 ~2.3 Bq/kg

References:

Calculation of Uranium Isotopic Activity Composition Based on Data from Various Assay Methods, http://www.lanl.gov/BAER-Conference/BAERCon-43p016.pdf

Discrimination of Radionuclides in High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging, Henwood, P.D., McCain, R.G., WM'06 Conference, 2006. http://www.wmsym.org/archives/2006/pdfs/6267.pdf

Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, http://www.nucleide.org

An Objective Look at Uranium, http://radiationfinder.com/DU

Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, 2nd Ed., Gordon R. Gilmore, 2011.

Radprocalculator.com

Results of Radioactive Analysis Around Fukushima Diachii Nuclear Power Station, http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/f1/smp/index-e.html

UNSCEAR, (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), Report to the General Assembly United Nations, New York, 2000. (UNSCEAR, 1982)

UNSCEAR, (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), Report to the General Assembly United Nations, New York, 2000. (UNSCEAR, 2000)


C. R. Appoloni and E. A. Rios, “Mass Attenuation Coefficients of
Brazilian Soils in the Range 10 –1450 keV”. Appl. Radiat. Isot.Vol 45,
1994, pp.287-291


World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering Vol:5, No:8, 2011, Determination of the Specific Activityof Soil
and Fertilizers in Sergipe - Brazil, Leandro X. Cardoso, Susana O. Souza,Fernanda C. L. Ferreira, Orlando C. Ferreira, Elenilson Barboza, Carlos E. Alhanati
http://waset.org/publications/9572/determination-of-the-specific-activity-of-soil-and-fertilizers-in-sergipe-brazil

http://www.physics.isu.edu/radinf/natural.htm



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